Acting as a resource for local, state, and national policy makers to enable improved health equity for all Americans. Developing health-promotion strategies that reach into communities to improve living and working conditions. Stress related to disparities has a direct link to health, and often results from overlapping factors. Children born to parents who haven’t completed high school are more likely to live in environments that contain barriers to health.
Given the breadth of the review, it was important to balance the sensitivity and specificity of our search strategy. To do this, we identified terms that might have ambiguous health and economic concepts (e.g. deprivation) which would have reduced the specificity. We re-specified or removed them as appropriate to ensure the search remained focused.
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We tested the sensitivity of the pilot search strategy by checking the inclusion of key ‘tracer papers’—these are papers we would expect our search to find, in line with previous umbrella reviews . All tracer papers were picked up by the pilot search; therefore, the search strategy was finalised for Medline and will be adapted for other databases. We developed an ‘economic’ search strategy from the American Journal of Economic Literature classification system which is used to categorise economic literature . We included JEL terms focused on the economy or its key components or policies and excluded JEL categories that were purely theoretical or methodological, or that were focused on the micro level .
We will only include peer-reviewed published studies and so will exclude grey literature to ensure the highest quality of evidence is reported. The umbrella review method provides a transparent and rigorous approach to reviewing the highest quality evidence on a broad topic and is increasingly common in the field of public health . The protocol for this systematic review is registered on PROSPERO , and any amendments will also be registered. The economy has been defined as a ‘social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use and management of resources.’ .
GenderqueerSomeone may identify as genderqueer if their gender identity is neither male nor female, is between or beyond genders, or is some combination of genders. This identity is often related to or in reaction to the social construction of gender, gender stereotypes and the gender binary system.Gender expressionGender expression is about how someone acts and presents themselves to world. Gender expression is not related to someone’s gender or sex, but rather about personal behaviours and interests. A cis man may wear nail polish or a trans woman may not like wearing dresses.
- Fetal undernutrition is believed to induce persistent changes in several metabolic pathways, but the exact mechanisms are only now being pieced together through a range of animal experiments and human measurement studies (Seckl, 1998; Barker, 1998).
- Exposure to asbestos, leading to lung cancer, is also a concern due to the prevalence of asbestos in schools and some homes (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1987; American Academy of Pediatrics, 1987).
- Health effects from these diverse indoor air pollutants include respiratory irritation with cough and wheezing, exacerbation of asthma, allergic responses, cancer, and central nervous system effects .
- On an average day, 6 children are killed and 797 are injured in motor vehicle crashes.
Intake of certain food items in some cultural settings are linked to beliefs and taboos. The larger the families, the more resources are required to meet nutritional needs. PLWHA in such families may have difficulties meeting antioxidant intake since the available meal will be shared with the rest of the family. The association of genes and culture works together so that along with the increase in population density come genetic consequences affecting evolution.
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We will search Medline , Embase , Econlit , PsycInfo , Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA; ProQuest) and Sociological Abstracts for relevant papers, developing tailored searches for each database. low testosterone symptoms This will ensure we will synthesize the best evidence from all the relevant disciplines.
The economy is thus conceived of as a complex interacting system which influences health through a number of mediators (access to healthcare, housing, etc.). Low-income families, at risk for neglect, tend to live in low-income neighborhoods, often characterized by high density, crime, and few opportunities for academic socialization. concerning food choices and preparation methods, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Preparation of some African traditional meals require several hours of cooking, altering nutrient content of most vegetables. Such practices would lead to destruction of most if not all water soluble vitamins including antioxidants such as vitamin C.
Sometimes people don’t express their gender in the way they would like to because they don’t feel safe to do so. This is why it’s important to not assume someone’s gender just based on how they look, but rather by checking in with them. What Euro-Canadian culture codes as being either ‘male’ or ‘female’ can be different than what other cultures may code as being ‘male’ or ‘female’. Someone who identifies as gender fluid may fluctuate between genders or express multiple genders at the same time. Their gender may also vary at random or vary in response to different circumstances.